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The Hijri Calendar, also known as the Islamic or Lunar Calendar, is a system used by Muslims to determine religious observances and dates. It is based on the lunar cycle and consists of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days, making it shorter than the Gregorian solar calendar. The calendar begins with the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from Mecca to Medina in the year 622 CE.
Muslim prayers, known as Salah or Salat, are an integral part of the Islamic faith and are performed by Muslims as a way to establish a direct connection with Allah (God). They are considered one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Muslim prayers are performed at specific times throughout the day and night and involve a series of physical movements and recitations. The prayers are conducted facing the Kaaba in Mecca, which is considered the holiest site in Islam.
Yes, there are five obligatory prayers that Muslims are required to perform daily:
The Azaan is the initial call to prayer that signals the time for a specific prayer and invites Muslims to the mosque, while the Iqamah is a shorter call that indicates the immediate start of the prayer and gathers the congregation for the worship. The timings mentioned on this page are for Azaan. This is normally a 15 mins gap between the Azaan and Iqamah, which is less as 5 minutes for Maghreb and could be slighltly longer up to 25 mins for Fajr prayer. Best practice is to wrap-up our work and start getting ready for prayers before azaan time.
A "Rak'ah" (plural: Rak'at) refers to a unit of prayer that consists of a sequence of specific physical movements and recitations. The number of Rak'ahs varies depending on the time of day and the type of prayer being performed. Each Rak'ah has a distinct pattern of standing, bowing, prostrating, and sitting, accompanied by recitations from the Quran and supplications.
The number of Rak'ahs performed in each of the five daily prayers (Fajr, Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, and Isha) varies. For example, Fajr consists of 2 Rak'ahs, Dhuhr has 4 Rak'ahs, Asr has 4 Rak'ahs, Maghrib has 3 Rak'ahs, and Isha has 4 Rak'ahs. The total number of Rak'ahs in each prayer is determined by the teachings of Prophet Muhammad and Islamic jurisprudence.
For example, you have missed 3 Rak'ahs in Isha and joined in the forth (maximum before or by the time the imam is still in Rakooh). You need to form the intention (niyyah) for the prayer in your heart. Then, say the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) to join. Stand in Qayaam even for a couple of seconds even if the imam has moved on already when you joined (if still in qayaam, follow him). Complete the prayer with imam, once he gives the Salam, stand up without giving Salam. Now you have to complete ths prayer by keeping the normal sequence considering as if it is your second Rak'ah second (as one you have already prayed with imam), you need to sit in Tashahhud. Then after that you stand up and pray two more Rak'ahs and sit again for final Tashahhud and Salam. (Note: Consult the islamic scholors in case of any questions.)
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